Humans have used geothermal heat since ancient times by taking a shower to cleanse the body, believing that there are chemicals in the hot springs to help kill germs and nourish the skin. Humans began to use heat to generate electricity for the first time in 1904.
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The technology has been developed steadily until the oil price crisis in 1973 saw the importance of energy from this source. making it widely used and becoming more and more popular
In some areas, geothermal energy is not very deep from the surface and is very hot. When the tube is drilled down, hot steam or high-pressure hot steam is released.
hot steam or hot steam The high pressure ejected can then be used to spin the generator directly.
working principle of geothermal power plant
1) Place the pipe down to the geothermal source to get hot steam or high pressure hot steam to come out.
2) Give hot steam or hot steam The high pressure ejected to spin the generator.
3) The steam that already acts to spin the generator. energy will decrease and turn into cold steam and condenses into water droplets And will be compressed into the underground to reduce the impact of waste hot water. and to reduce the subsidence of that area
4) The warm water in the cooling tower will be pumped back down to the underworld again. in order not to allow the remaining water from the geothermal power plant to change the environment in that area
There are three types of power plants produced from geothermal energy as follows:
1. Dry steam geothermal power plants
In the case of a geothermal reservoir, the temperature is very high. and there is only very hot steam coming out. Power plants embed tubes below the earth to allow hot, geothermal vapors to escape through the tubes. The hot dry vapor will have a temperature of about 200 – 300 degrees Celsius and a pressure of about 4 – 8 million newtons per square meter. This stream will flow out at a speed of hundreds of kilometers per hour. The energy from this hot steam is enough to run a large electric generator without having to go through a boiler. The dry steam system has the advantage that no energy is wasted to remove the steam before it is fed to the steam turbine. There isn’t much of this level of high-temperature steam. The first geothermal power plant to be built in Italy. It is a dry steam power plant. This type of power plant is considered the most economical system. They provide the highest output of electricity compared to other types of geothermal power plants. An example of this type of power plant is the Larderello Geothermal Power Plant. in Italy Geysers Geothermal Power Plant United States
2. Flash Steam Geothermal Power Plant
Flash-steam geothermal power plant It uses hot steam from a geothermal energy source with a lot of steam mixed. Therefore, this type of power plant must be equipped with a mist separator to reduce the accumulation of mineral deposits in the steam on the turbine blades. The steam used to turn a turbine in such a power plant should have a temperature of about 155 – 165 degrees Celsius and a pressure in the range of 0.5 – 0.6 million newtons per square meter. The remaining water from this process is pumped back. still under the earth as before Most geothermal power plants are of this type.
3. Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plant
In the case of geothermal heating, the temperature and pressure are not very high, so the hot steam has not much pressure. It is not enough to be used to spin the generator by itself. Therefore, a 2-cycle geothermal power plant has been designed by allowing the hot water from the geothermal to boil and vaporize low-boiling liquids such as ammonia, Freon, and allow the vapors of these liquids to spin the generator. electricity
In a dual-cycle geothermal power plant, the heat from the geothermal hot water is transferred to a special fluid that transfers the hot water without any chance of contact with air. and will be compressed back into the underworld as before A power plant like this therefore produces no emissions. But the disadvantage of this power plant is It requires a higher investment than the first one because energy must be transferred to the working fluid. (liquids with low boiling point but the energy received is less than the first 2 types